A sole proprietor transfers ownership of the business by transferring the assets of the business to the new owner. The prior proprietorship is terminated and a new proprietorship is established under the new owner.
The transfer of a partner’s economic interest in a partnership is determined by the partnership agreement, or by statute if there is no partnership agreement. Unless permitted by the partnership agreement, no person may become a partner without the consent of all the other partners. If a partner attempts to transfer his or her interest in the partnership without such an agreement, the transferee does not become a partner but instead becomes entitled to receive the profits which the transferring partner otherwise would receive. A properly drawn partnership agreement will address the conditions under which an ownership interest may be transferred, and the consequences to the transferee and to the partnership.
Ownership in a corporation is transferred by sale of stock. A change in ownership does not affect the existence of the corporate entity. Technically, shares of stock in a corporation are freely transferable. As a practical matter, however, the market may be limited for shares of stock in a small corporation that is not publicly traded. In addition, shareholders in a new venture often will want to prevent unrestricted transfer of shares and thus may provide in the articles of incorporation or bylaws for transfer restrictions or buy-sell and redemption agreements, further limiting transferability. In an S corporation, shares of stock are also freely transferable, in theory. However, the S corporation election may be inadvertently terminated if the entity to which the shares are transferred does not qualify as an S corporation shareholder.
Limited Liability Company
Membership rights in a limited liability company consist of financial rights and governance rights. Financial rights are the rights to share in the profits, losses and distributions of the limited liability company. Governance rights are the rights to vote and to manage the business. Unless the articles of organization or operating agreement provide otherwise, a member may assign or transfer financial rights. Such a transfer gives the transferee all the rights to profits and distributions that the transferor had. The transfer does not create membership rights in the transferee, nor can the transfer allow the transferee to directly or indirectly exercise governance rights. Governance rights can only be transferred if all members give their written consent. The articles of organization may provide for less-than unanimous consent.
CREDITS: This is an excerpt from A Guide to Starting a Business in Minnesota, provided by the Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, Small Business Assistance Office, Twenty-eighth Edition, January 2010, written by Charles A. Schaffer, Madeline Harris, and Mark Simmer. Copies are available without charge from the Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, Small Business Assistance Office.
This is also part of a series of articles on How to Pick the Right Business Entity Type. These articles help you select the right business type for your circumstances.